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随着中美贸易战的升级 中国放松反污染规定 以刺

作者:admin  日期:2018-11-17 15:56  人气:
中国已经放松了冬季污染防治措施,因为在一场破坏性的贸易战中,中国将经济增长置于环境治理之上。
 
China has relaxed its winter pollution control measures because in a devastating trade war, it has put economic growth above environmental governance.
 
 
 
目前,美国对2000亿美元的中国进口商品征收的新关税已达到10%,并可能在1月1日升至25%,中国经济开始感受到压力。
 
At present, the new tariff imposed by the United States on $200 billion of Chinese imports has reached 10%, and may rise to 25% on January 1. China's economy is beginning to feel pressure.
 
 
 
随着企业准备应对美国关税的影响,中国的制造业增长势头正在减弱。
 
As businesses prepare to respond to US tariffs, China's manufacturing growth is weakening.
 
 
 
中国最新的官方制造业采购经理人指数(PMI)从8月的51.3降至9月份的50.8,为8个月以来的最低点。
 
China's latest official Manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) fell from 51.3 in August to 50.8 in September, its lowest level in eight months.
 
 
 
与此同时,财新制造业采购经理人指数(PMI)跌至50.0,危险地接近于收缩指数(低于50)。
 
Meanwhile, Caixin Manufacturing Purchasing Managers Index (PMI) fell to 50.0, dangerously close to the contraction index (below 50).
 
 
 
中国出口到美国的成品制造商遭受了特别严重的打击,减少了对原材料的采购。
 
Manufacturers of finished goods exported to the United States by China have suffered a particularly severe blow, reducing their purchases of raw materials.
 
 
 
例如,美国对含有聚氯乙烯(PVC)的成品征收关税,需求下降,导致中国国内价格在9月底一周内下跌9%,至9个月低点。
 
For example, the United States imposed tariffs on products containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and demand declined, resulting in a 9% drop in domestic prices in China in the week to the 9-month low at the end of September.
 
 
 
 
 
随着中国经济放缓,中国领导人放松环境法规,以刺激经济增长。中国官方通讯社新华社9月27日报道称,北京、天津、河北及周边地区将实施PM2.5平均强度和日数同比下降3%的目标。
 
As China's economy slows, Chinese leaders relax environmental regulations to stimulate economic growth. China's official news agency Xinhua reported on September 27 that Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas will implement the target of reducing the average intensity and number of days of PM2.5 by 3% year-on-year.
 
 
 
该目标将于2018年10月至2019年3月实施,将对火电、钢铁、石化和水泥生产商产生影响。
 
The target will be implemented from October 2018 to March 2019 and will have an impact on thermal power, steel, petrochemical and cement producers.
 
 
 
该报称,这比8月份《南华早报》报道的初步计划中提出的5%减少幅度要低,且远远低于去年计划中“至少15%”的下降幅度目标。
 
According to the newspaper, this is lower than the 5% reduction proposed in the preliminary plan reported by the South China Morning Post in August, and far below the target of "at least 15% reduction" in last year's plan.
 
 
 
同时,也远低于中国国务院总理李克强在2018年3月提出的类似目标。当时,李克强给出了2018年关键地区PM2.5平均浓度整体下降30%的目标。
 
At the same time, it is far lower than the similar goal put forward by Premier Li Keqiang of China in March 2018. At that time, Li Keqiang gave the target that the average concentration of PM2.5 in the key areas decreased by 30% in 2018.
 
 
 
地方当局执行
 
Implementation of local authorities
 
 
 
地方政府将执行这些目标,而不是由中央政府强制执行,人们认为地方政府执行不如强大的中央政府部门执行有效。
 
Local governments will implement these goals, rather than being enforced by the central government. It is believed that local governments are less effective than powerful central government departments.
 
 
 
新华社表示,此外,还需要采取一种更灵活的方法:“采取差异化的方式,在污染控制方面表现出色的企业将不受产量限制。”
 
In addition, a more flexible approach is needed, Xinhua said: "By adopting a differentiated approach, companies that excel in pollution control will not be subject to production restrictions."
 
 
 
对于化工企业来说,这可能意味着较老、规模较小、污染更严重的工厂将成为目标,而新工厂将不受影响。
 
For chemical companies, this may mean that older, smaller, more polluted plants will be targeted, while new ones will not be affected.
 
 
 
由于新规的放宽,塑料加工商的停业可能会减少。近几个月来,工厂停业一直是价格的抑制因素。
 
Due to the loosening of the new rules, the closure of plastic processors may be reduced. In recent months, the closure of factories has been a factor of price constraint.
 
 
 
尽管如此,预计聚合物消费增长带来的任何好处都将非常有限,因为收益的抵消将对美国征收中国塑料产品进口关税造成负面影响。
 
Nevertheless, it is expected that any benefit from the increase in polymer consumption will be very limited, as offsetting the gains will have a negative impact on the imposition of import tariffs on Chinese plastic products by the United States.
 
 
 
放宽的规定仍不会阻止该行业的重组,因为小规模、低效率的加工商和其它制造商将继续因经济原因被永久关闭。
 
The relaxation will not stop the restructuring of the industry, as small, inefficient processors and other manufacturers will continue to be permanently closed for economic reasons.
 
 
 
此外,将工厂从市区迁往化学园区的计划预计将继续进行。
 
In addition, the plan to move the factory from the urban area to the chemical park is expected to continue.
 
 
 
去年,环境检查和随后的停业,导致中国总产能约40%的产商暂时关闭,8万家工厂被控违反排放目标。
 
Last year, environmental inspections and subsequent shutdowns led to the temporary closure of about 40% of China's total capacity, and 80,000 factories were accused of violating emission targets.
 
 
 
氯碱工厂的开工率尤其受到了影响,开工率降至50-70%。
 
The operating rate of chlor alkali plants has been particularly affected, and the operating rate has dropped to 50-70%.
 
 
 
更多气体用于化学品
 
More gas for chemicals
 
 
 
根据新规定,今年冬天将不再实行全面禁止家庭取暖使用煤炭的规定。相反,地方政府将设定与当地天然气和发电能力相匹配的目标。这可以改善今年冬季化学品生产的供应。
 
According to the new regulations, there will be no general ban on household heating and coal use this winter. Instead, local governments will set targets that match local natural gas and generating capacity. This can improve the supply of chemical production this winter.
 
 
 
去年,从煤炭到天然气的强制转换导致了用于化工生产的天然气定量供应。
 
Last year, the forced conversion of coal to natural gas resulted in the quantitative supply of natural gas for chemical production.
 
 
 
这解释了为什么亚甲基二苯基二异氰酸酯(MDI)和甲苯二异氰酸酯(TDI)的利润随着工厂关闭而进入高位。因此,去年某些行业的利润率和价格上涨在今年不会重演。
 
This explains why the profits of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) have reached a high level with the closure of factories. Therefore, the profit margins and price increases of some industries last year will not repeat this year.

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